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The Business Department

=30. Divisions of the Business Department
When the paper issues from
the press, it passes into the hands of the circulation manager, whose
duties are in an entirely different department of the newspaper
organization,--the business department. This department is divided into
two or three more or less closely connected divisions, presided over by
the circulation manager, the advertising manager, and the cashier. Over
all these is the business manager, who supervises the department as a

=31. The Circulation Manager
The work of the circulation manager has
been termed simple by outsiders. But the simplicity exists only for
outsiders. The distribution of a hundred thousand to a million papers a
day is not a small task in itself, particularly when one considers the
scores of trains to be caught, the dozens of delivery wagons and wagon
drivers to be guided, and the hundreds of newsboys and newsstands to be
supplied with the very latest editions at the very earliest moment. Yet
the circulation manager's duties are even more multifarious than this.
All the canvassers for new subscriptions are under his supervision. The
organization of the newsboys for selling his paper is his duty,--and it
is marvelous how the good-will of the newsboys, even when they handle
all rival publications, can boost the sales of some particular
circulation manager's papers. The advertising of the paper's past and
forthcoming news features, such as stories by special writers, exclusive
dispatches, etc., are the brunt of his work, because in so far as he
makes people believe in the superiority of his news, they will buy the
papers. Even the outcries against public grievances and the publication
of subscription lists for charitable purposes are often the thoughts of
the circulation manager, because they invite more readers. Some
managers, under the guise of helping the down-and-outs, even publish
free all "Situations Wanted" advertisements, because they believe that
the loss in advertising will be more than paid for by the gain in the
number of readers, with the resultant possibility of higher advertising
rates or more advertising in other departments because of the increased

=32. The Advertising Manager
Closely associated with the circulation
manager is the advertising manager, who is dependent upon the former for
his rates. It makes a great difference with the advertising manager's
rates whether the circulation is a hundred thousand or a quarter of a
million, and whether the circulation is double or one half that of the
rival morning publication. The advertising manager's duties are as
manifold as those of his associate. He directs the advertising
solicitors and advises prospective advertisers about the place, prices,
space, and character of their advertisements. A chewing tobacco ad is
worth little in the column bordering the society section; the back page
is far more valuable for advertising than the inside; and the columns
next to reading matter are worth more than those on a page filled only
with advertisements. The advertising manager, too, has the power of
accepting or rejecting advertisements. Liquor, soothing syrup, and
questionable ads are barred by many managers. Some will not even accept
so-called personal ads. Yet at the same time that they are rejecting ads
in this class, such managers are straining every point to gain desirable
ones. One way of obtaining these is by advertising solicitors. Another
is by advertising in one's own paper and in publications in other
cities. Many of the metropolitan dailies exchange whole and half-page
advertisements, directing attention to their circulation figures and the
number of agate lines of advertising matter printed within the
preceding month or year. Some of these papers publish audited
statements, too, of the relative number of advertising lines printed by
their own and rival publications. But the advantage is always in their
own favor.

=33. The Cashier
The third division of the business department is the
cashier's office, frequently known as the counting room. Briefly put,
the cashier directs the pay-roll and all receipts and disbursements of
the paper. He keeps the books of the publishing company. From him the
reporter receives his pay envelop, and to him are sent all bills for
paper, ink, machinery, telegraph and telephone messages, and similar
expenses. Rarely has the cashier served an apprenticeship in the
editorial department, but he knows thoroughly the business of
bookkeeping, money changing, banking, and similar work, which is all
that is required in his position.

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